Grand Prince of All Russia
Valery Viktorovich Kubarev
Grand Kubensky Rurikovich
Русский Wednesday, 13 December 2017
 
 
Russian Revolution's Forum

Historical and
editorial cartoon

Modernization of Russia

Holy Russia - Third Rome
The new subject of international law, the State Holy Russia - Third Rome, 21.09.2013.

Nova Church of Holy Russia
Orthodoxy and Christianity require reforming and release of heresy and obscurantism. 21.09.2011.

Great Tartary or Slavic Empire New!!!
The next riddle of world historiography is solved. Present clause is devoted to history and modern condition of one of the most grandiose empires of terrestrial civilization – Great Tartary or Slavic Empires. 04–19.09.2017.

The European Aryans New!!!
In present clause the broad audience of the questions connected to probable Aryan origin of various European peoples is considered. Including aspects of possible an Aryan origin of Slavs and prospects of presence by these of special way to world around are considered. 25.02.2017 - 24.03.2017.

Summarizing of Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016) New!!!
Within the framework of carrying out Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016) on elections of Grand Prince of All Russia four Nominees have been put forward. The overwhelming majority of voices have been given for Nominee Grand Prince Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev. Will of God and decision of participants of Assembly, Zemsky Sobor 2016 has elected lifelong Grand Prince of All Russia Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev Grand Kubensky Rurikovich. 11.05.2016.

Yaroslavl’s Princes Rurikovich New!!!
In clause is described family tree of Grand Princes of Yaroslavl and their descendants, it is the senior branch of the Kin of Russ – Rurikovich, going back to Mstislav Great Monomachos. Kin of the Grand Princes of Yaroslavl have continued by Princes Grand Kubensky – Kubarev. 22.02.2016–11.03.2016.

All truth about Saint Prince Vladimir New!!!
In clause the all truth about Saint Prince Vladimir which is ignored Orthodox and Romanov’s historians, communistic historical science and their modern adepts, fabricating myths about Russ with « good intentions » opens without denominations. The kin of Russ - Rurikovich has created Orthodoxy and the Russian statehood, Russian people began to forget about it. Glory to Russ! 07-17.07.2015.

Brief chronology of religions New!!!
The report at XXX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 25.04.2015, Moscow, RosNoU. In the clause the final Chronological Tables of Ancient Egypt, Ancient and New Rome, Rome in Italy, Christianity, Islam and Judaism are submitted. 25.04.2015.

Chronology of religions New!!!
Clause in which the true chronology of religions and general history is stated and offered to your attention. Summary tables of Tsars, Pharaohs, Patriarchs, Emperors and key events in history of mankind are resulted. On an extensive documentary material it is proved, that chronology of Egypt and religions of monotheism it is artificial older on 1790 years. The data on real historical characters and the Bible places, which have served by prototypes for writing of Old and New Testaments, and also the Koran, are present. 26.01.2015-12.03.2015.

Canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century and the present time New!!!
The report at XXIX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20.12.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the comparative analysis of canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century (1315-1321), displayed on mosaics and frescos of Church of Chorus in Istanbul, and modern doctrines are made. Numerous differences of events of the Holy Legend and the Gospel of the past and the present are found out. 20.12.2014.

Ethnic threats to peoples of Russia
In clause political, economic, cultural and religious aspects of consequences of ethnic opposition of radical peoples of Russia and new coming Slavic population formed as result of violent Slavic expansion in Russia in days of the Mongolian yoke are considered. The historical reasons of occurrence of ethnic contradictions are investigated, estimations of modern condition of problem (Chechelevskaya and Lubotinskaya Republics in 1905, Donetsk national republic and Lugansk national republic in 2014 in territory of Ukraine) are given and offers on decrease in escalation of ethnic opposition in territory of Eurasia are made. 09.06 - 05.07.2014.

Attribution of Rurikovich and Emperors Lecapenus
The report at XXVIII International Conference on problems of the Civilization is 26.04.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In clause it is described detailed attribution of Ugrian Tsars with Emperors of Ancient and New Rome and Patriarches of terrestrial civilization. It is scientifically proved origins of all patriarches of monotheism and Emperors Flavius and Lecapenus from kint of Ugrian Tsars of Russ (Great), is the ethnic Finn-Ugrian from Volga region. 23.03.2014 – 24.04.2014.

Putin's Eurasian impasse
Vladimir Putin and Uniform Russia realize the Eurasian project, involving Russia and Russian people during stagnation and backlogs from World Civilization. They create Gog and Magog Empire, menacing to world peace. Why the Kremlin authority has not asked Russian Slavs – they want to live in the Asian country or to be safe Europeans? 14-22.01.2014.

Projections of the God in symbols of religion
As result of studying the extensive visual material created by 3D modeling, we have proved existence of uniform source of an origin of Projections of the God, that is religious symbolic of people. The source or quantum object refers to the Chariot of the God. We believe that on the basis of our researches, it will be possible to organize training to travel on the Universe of space navigators from the most gifted people and to create spaceships with engines as the described quantum generator is Chariots of the God or the Chariot of Cube. 25–30.08.2013.

Origin and migration of Slavs
Historical and genetic routes of migrations of the Slavs, calculated with the help from ancient Byzantium, European, Chinese, Arabian, Bulgarian and Russian chronicles and annals, and also modern researches of man's DNA chromosomes. 01-21.05.2013.

Empires of cousins of Russ
The report at scientific XXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization 26-27.04.2013, Moscow, RosNoU. In article five world Empires of cousins of Russ (Great) existing in our era on open spaces of Eurasia with cyclicity of occurrence once in 300 years are described.

Hungarian Kingdom of Russ
It is continuation of research of dynastic communications of Rurikovich. Cousin of Rurik Almysh/Almos and his children Kazan/Kurszan and Arbat/Arpad, it is all ethnic Ugrian of Russ, have based at the end of IX century – beginning of X century the Hungarian kingdom of Russ, having grasped Great Moravia. 08-11.01.2013.

Reconstruction of dynastic communications of Rurikovich in IX-XI centuries
Report at anniversary scientific XXV International conference on problems of civilization at 21-22.12.2012, RosNoU, Moscow. Corrected at 03.01.2013.

Educated Christianity of Russ
Bible – the Old Testament and the New Testament has exhausted itself. Forged the Scripts and the Sacred Legend cannot serve more as a spiritual reference point for promotion of mankind forward on the river of time. It is allowable to use only spiritual – moral potential of the ancient products being product of national creativity of Jews and Catholics, instead of divine revelations. The chronology of Bible events, an ethnic accessory of patriarchs of mankind, names, geography and original languages of heroes of the Bible do not correspond to the validity. Bible miracles have the quantum nature in the basis and submit to laws of a universe. Educated Christianity of Russ restore the religious both destroyed obscurantists religious and scientific knowledge of Christianity and revolutionary role of religion in history of civilization. 26.08. – 12.10.2012.

True Empty Tomb
Nova Church of Sacred Russia and Sacred Russ, Princes of Russia congratulates mankind on presence of True Empty Tomb and restoration of the religious and historical truth. The true has triumphed forever. 20-29.05.2012.

Orthodoxy and Islam in Old Russia
The report at XXIV International scientific conference on problems of the Civilization in Russian New University on April 20-21, 2012.

Day of Church Slavonic writing. Russ Cyril and Methodius.
In this significant holiday of Day of Church Slavonic writing and remembering Equal Apostles Sacred Cyril and Methodius, Princes of Russ convincingly ask Russian Orthodox Church and the public of the orthodox countries to return to sources and correctly to name the writing, language and church books Russian, but not Slavic. Ancient Russia was the Finno-Ugric state created by Russ Christians Rurik and Igor, Cyril and Methodius, Askold and Dir, Prophetic Oleg and Sacred Olga, Sacred Vladimir and Empress Anna Macedonian. 24.05.2011.

Wars of Russ in IX-XI centuries
In article on a rich actual material it is shown, that all wars of Russ with Byzantium in 836-1043 have been connected to deduction of a throne of empire by Russian party of Constantinople headed by the Macedonian dynasty of Russ. To the author it is proved, that two centuries co-emperors of New Rome were Great Princes Rurikovich. Last Russian emperor Jaroslav Mudry known in Tsar Grad as Constantine Monomakh was. The report at scientific XXII International conference on problems of the Civilization 22-23.04.2011, Moscow, RosNoU.

Genetic distances between cousins Rurikovich
The report at scientific XXII International Conference on problems of the Civilization, on April 22-23, 2011, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. 24.04.2011.

Slavic-Mongolian invasion to Russia
Results of our research of an origin of Slavs have not simply scientific, but political value. In view of the received data it is necessary to form the weighed policy of interethnic and inter religious attitudes in Russia and the world. The modern hobby of Russian Slavs Rodoverie, the Aries origin and the contemptuous attitude to inhabitants of Central Asia, Caucasus, Mongolia, China and other regions of the world bears a system and logic mistake. Rodoverie in general it is senseless, in fact ancestors Rodoverian in Russia and Ukraine have left Central Asia and were Kirghiz, Altaian’s, Tajik’s, Pashtun’s, Uyghur’s and Juan-Juan, and completely not blond demigods. 12-18.03.2011.

Old Rome and Italic union of the Volga region
The scientific article on an extensive historical material proves that Ancient Rome has been created by Finno-Ugric tribe’s of Italic union of the Volga region (Idel, Bulgar). Italic peoples Vestini (Vesi), Marsi (Merya), Lucani (Lucane), Marrucini (Marri) and others till now live on Volga. Finno-Ugric named Latinas (Latinyanami) German peoples of the Volga region, differently Altyn-ami that means Gold literally. Fortress Alba Longo was called Altynbash, and Volga region Rome – Ulak-Urum. Southwest capital of Finno-Ugric of Idel was city Phanagoria or the Finn–Ugoria, being in antiquities capital Bosporus Empire and Great Bulgaria was. The web of lies of the western falsifiers of history how many would not be twisted, but to it all the same there comes the end. 10-21.02.2011.

Correct genographic
We have proved fidelity Bulgarian theory of an origin of mankind. She proves to be true a natural vector of moving of people on a planet from the Volga region in all parties of Eurasia, and there from to Africa, Australia and America. All peoples and races of the world have taken place from Hindi-European, namely – from ethnic Finno-Ugric. 01-07.02.2011.

Correct DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology
Scientific article of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev on DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology is submitted to your attention. The author has created formulas with which help it is possible to define precisely time of life of the general ancestor and an epoch of formation of various languages. These formulas have received the name of Kubarev’s formula. With the help of mathematical calculations, Valeriy Kubarev has proved fidelity Barrow of Hypothesis of Maria Gimbutas and own reconstruction of a history of the world. We hope that results of research will find wide application in DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology. 04-14.01.2011.

Genealogy and genetics of Princes of Russia
The report of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev at XXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization 25.12.2010. Valeriy Kubarev's scientific article describes genetics of Rurikovich and Sorts of Russia. Grand Prince has scientifically defined modal haplotype of Rurik, Gedimin, Russ Aydar, Kubrat, Flavius and has theoretically described modal haplotype of Alexander Great, Jesus Christ Zlatoust, Prophet Mohammed and Genghis Khan. All these well-known people ethnically Finno-Ugrian from the Sort of Russ. 25.12.2010.

Cubes of the Universe. Reconstruction of Russia and the World.
To viewing sensational television films from the volumetric project under the name Reconstruction of a history of Russia and the World or Cubes of the Universe are offered you. The main character – Grand Prince of the Sovereign August House Rurikovich Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev. It is Grand Kubensky Rurikovich. In film participate is Primary Spirit, the Universe, Gods, Emperors, Tsars, Hagan’s, Princes, peoples and simple persons. 25.11.2010.

What do we celebrate on November 4? Loss of the national sovereignty...
National voting or voting of national representatives is unacceptable for elections of Tsar and Grand Duke, in fact tsar from the God, and the voice of people is not a voice Divine. Elections of Grand Duke only voting of Princes – patrimonial aristocracy of Russia are possible. 08-21.11.2010.

Turn of the Earth promptly comes nearer
This is article with the analysis of abnormal geophysical and climatic activity on a planet. 09-12.09.2010.

Baltavar – a symbol of Christianity, an Islam and Judaism
Petrarca: « When people will address to the history, his greatness come to live » 30-31.03.2010

History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012
Kubarev V.V.'s report, History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012. Section «Civilization aspects of the Russian history and chronology». Tenth International scientific conference «Civilization of knowledge: global crisis and an innovative choice of Russia», Moscow, April 24-25, 2009, RosNOU.

Ancient Egypt (1217 B.C. - 1171)
Given clause on a history and chronology of Ancient Egypt corrects and Chronology of bible Egypt supplements materials of clause. July 2009

Archive 2006-2015


Whose fault is it?

Expansion of Rome from Volga region New!!!
The report at XXXIII International conference on problems of the Civilization, 24.12.2016, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the extensive information on resettlement of peoples to Europe through ports of Bosporan Kingdom and Bosporus to the Mediterranean from the Volga region, Siberia and Caucasus during existence of Ancient Rome in delta of the rivers Volga and Akhtuba since VI century B.C. up to middle of VI century is submitted. 24.12.2016.

Seleucus and tribal leaders of Rome New!!!
The report at scientific XXXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization has acted on December 26, 2015, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. In the report the hypothesis that "Macedonian" gains of IV century B.C. actually are the first wave of expansion of Ancient Rome and resettlement of peoples on South, East and West from territory of the Volga region and Caucasus is put forward and proved. 26.12.2015.

Picturesque Gospel of Church of Chora (Kariye) in Istanbul New!!!
Research of artifacts of Church of the Christ Savior in Chora (Church of Chorus, XIV century, Istanbul) has allowed restoring overlooked nuances of ancient doctrines of Byzantium Orthodoxy. The numerous facts of distortion Holy Book and Holy Legend have been found out at formation of modern Christian canons which at all are not an inviolable reality from above, and there is product of human creativity. 15.09–08.10.2014.

Images ancient Romans from Volga in artefacts
Long millennia in Idel-Rome-Memphis-Mitsraim-Itil-Saray-Batu lived from 600 000 up to one million person. Ruins of city are grandiose pantry of a history, culture and religion. Masonic scientists diligently avoid carrying out there scale excavation. In those places prospers only black selector of treasures. How long it is possible to hide to world elite of impostors true from people? 20-22.04.2010.

Archive 2004-2015


What to do?

Startup the Sky-Cube New!!!
Project Sky-Cube assumes creation of essentially new alternative kind of solar power station. 15.05.2017.

Start-up Cube New!!!
Project Cube is intended for creation of world net Wi-Fi developed in space around of the Earth in orbits of 900-1200 km. 24.04.2017.

Pure Relationship New!!!
We have found out and have proved that at everyone men are two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors he has only one pair pure relatives – the forefather and the foremother. All other ancestors are the listed relatives. We also have proved that each woman has two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors it has only one pair foremothers. On the basis of research we confirm De Facto firmness of the absolute law of succession is rule Lex Salica of Pure Relationship. 05.08 – 03.09.2014.

Prophet Mohammed
Thus, genealogic tree of Prophet Mohammed is proved with existence of short chronology of mankind. The history of mankind is based on acts of a dynasty Russian Varyags and Kumirs into which great prophets of mankind entered: Nay (Nuh), Abraham (Ibragim), Ismail, Jacob (Jakub), Tsars Saul-David (Kubara-Shambat), Jesus Christ (Isa) and Prophet Mohammed. 01-02.03.2008.

Archive 2004-2015


To be continued...

Thoughts aloud: Religion

Gospel of Russia
Apostles of the Christ New!!!
The red cock in pagan Russia New!!!
Rostov Great Kremlin New!!!
Christ Tower in Galata New!!!
Assumption Cathedral, the Rostov Kremlin
Under gate Church of John the Apostle, the Rostov Kremlin
Under gate Church of Christmas, the Rostov Kremlin
Not combustible Cubina
Pilgrim and scientific visit to Sinai and Palestine of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev
Rock of Cub, Qubbat as-Sahra or Solomon Temple
Necropolis of Smolensk cathedral of Novodevichiy Monastery in Moscow
Urmans-Romans in Russian, Bulgarian and the Byzantium annals
Parables
Prince Kurbsky and Ivan IV named Sacred Russia is Israel
Allah Akbar!
Lupa Capitolina from Volga region
69 descendant dynasty of Tsar of Tsars
Maria's biography
Hermes Trismegist
Attila
Kubara
Golgotha
Swastika and card colors as symbols of Christianity
Rise, fall asleep and asceticism

Thoughts aloud: Politics

Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016) New!!!
Kill Lenin inside New!!!
Cyberwarfare New!!!
The Program Great Russ New!!!
Civilization or barbarity and wildness New!!!
Manifest of Russian Minarchism New!!!
Holey nuclear shield of Russia
Results of Elections-2016 to State Duma of Russian Federation and Moscow regional Duma
Social movement No more sanctions!
Complaint in the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
Putin’s fetters
Appeal of Holy Russia
All-Russian Marche of Peace 21.09.2014
Family tree of Princes and Moscow Tsars Kubarev-Kubensky-Rurikovich
Alliance
Russian march For Holy Russia!
Press conference: Russian March For Holy Russia!
Gene of corruptions of Slavs
Russian march – 2012
The candidate for Presidents of the Russian Federation of N.V. Levashov has died
Valeriy Kubarev's reference to colleagues on Russian party and opposition
Revolution of Goods and Light in Russia
Bluff of Slav-Aries propagandists

Thoughts aloud: Advice

Book "Vedas of Russ"
Cube meditation for men New!!!
Cubina meditation for woman New!!!
Lightning above Vatican New!!!
How to stop smoke
How to stop drink
How to grow thin
How to reach enlightenment
The text of the book "Michael Khodorkovsky Forbidden forum " in two volumes
The text of the book Christ
The text of the book Conservative
The text of the book Varyags
Donations New!!!

Thoughts aloud

Archive 2004-2015

To be continued...
  Valery KUBAREV > Whose fault is it? > Expansion of Rome from Volga region

Expansion of Rome from Volga region


Expansion of people from the Volga region 5500 years ago



Distribution of wheel and vehicles from Ural on the world B.C.



I have written a number of clauses about localization of Ancient Rome to the Volga region in delta of the rivers of Volga and Akhtuba (old channel of Volga). The Russian society does not react in any way to the "sensational" information stated in my works. The problem of aversion is covered in dispassionateness of the majority of Russians from heritage of history and culture of Ancient Rome civilizations. Half of population of Russia is descendants of the Mongols occurring from territories of northern China, Altai and Mongolia. Genetically and spiritually they will defend from the Roman civilization so far, that perceive the real information on the great past of Russia as unsuccessful joke.

Who believes Africa place of an origin of modern civilization, let will be set by questions – why they not Negros? Why the muscular and bone structure of body of inhabitants of Africa thoroughly differs from other inhabitants of the Earth? The matter is that in Africa there were humanoid monkeys, and not so modern people. The person reasonable and spiritual has appeared suddenly to Africa only 3000 years ago, with the help of sexual expansion replacing wild hominids on accomplished people by destruction of man's individuals and creation of harems from female hominids. In these harems new people – the Africans who are lagging behind in the development from inhabitants of Europe and Asia were born. Thus it is necessary to understand, that in Russia Europeans carry to the European race, and scientific and Europeans named themselves the Caucasian race, but the race is phenotype transmitted by women. As local women look, such there are also men.

On our deep belief [1] based on the scientific facts and Tumulus hypothesis of Maria Gimbutas [2-5], the person reasonable spiritual has taken place in the Volga region hardly more 5500 years ago. From the Volga region it has directed the expansion on all worlds. Language theory PIE and dynamics of distribution of wheel vehicles speak about it on the world from Ural and the Volga region. We already many times wrote that in the center of Apennines there could not be huge city Rome as there is not present civilization ways. True Rome antiquities are city of elite of Ugrian peoples and barbarians of the Volga region surrounding them and Ural, Siberia, Caucasus and the Central Asia. Ancient Bulgarians named it Ulak Urum [6]. Word Urum this deformed word Rome.

In the early works we have proved localization of Ancient Rome in the Volga region [7-11]. We shall remind in general results of our researches. It agrees Bulgarian chronicles [6] after cataclysm (Flood or Accident of bronze age about1250 BC) in the Volga region there was state Idel (Itil) identified by us with Italic union. The first fortress around of which the new civilization was formed was White Walls or Alba Longo in Latin language, or Altyn-bash on Bulgarian, or the Inbu-Hedj (Aneb-Hetch) in the Egyptian version. Fortress has arisen in 1152 BC. The founder of fortress tsar of Troy Aeneas, it is Pharaoh Menes who was born absolutely near to these places in the city of Tanais that on Don was.



Configuration of the seas in the Caspian region soon after Flood 1250 B.C.



Totem of the first Romans (Sabines and Etruscan) and Bulgarian the wolf of red color was. We have proved that Capitoline Wolf (Lupa Capitolina) there is version of the Caspian wolf living on Northern Caucasus and in mouth of Volga. According to Latin legend, the city of Rome was based Romulus brother of Remus. Modern sculpture of Capitoline Wolf contains two baby, eating milk of she-wolf. However bronze figure of Romulus and Remus have created only at the end of XV century. Cicero wrote that the sculpture settled down on Capitol Hill and included she-wolf and one child – the baby eating milk of she-wolf.

This information contradicts the basic Roman legend about two brothers, but corresponds to legend of Finno-Ugric peoples of Bulgar [6]: In the other myth the main character – alp the Wolf. When once enemies have destroyed one Bulgarian kin and wanted to kill already his last representative – the small son of biy (leader) of kin alp the Storm has not admitted it. It has given force of fatally wounded mother of the boy, and she has managed to plant the son in the big boiler and to throw the boiler in the river. The river has brought the boiler with the child to the big and impassable bog. Then alp Magician Wolf has forced to address spirit of crop Samara in deer, to make the way over bog to the river and to attribute the boy in den she-wolf. She-wolf has brought up the boy whom began to name Genghis or the Mag – uli (Son of the Wolf).



Capitoline Wolf (Lupa Capitolina) from Volga region



Modern near-Caspian she-wolf, it is the red wolf



Rome has been based on April 21, 753 BC when around Palatine Hill the first has been lead furrow. In the same year Memphis which is taking place on river Ankh Tawy (Life of two grounds) or Iti Tawy (Uniting two grounds) in the Lower Egypt has been incorporated. On our reconstruction of history, the Bottom Egypt was in mouth of Volga and Akhtuba on island Akhtuba. Memphis lay between two grounds divided by current of Volga, the river Ra named in the past. Modern historians have forgotten the data of the Egyptian chronicles according to which the river Ra flew from the north on the south, antithetically to current of Nile (from the south on the north).

We confirm, that names Akhtuba are little bit deformed Egyptian expression Ankh Tawy, and island Akhtuba length 400 km between Volga and Akhtuba it and there is a Life of Two Grounds. Besides the Romans Tiber river had initial name Alba (White). Change of the name is connected to death of Tsar Tiberinus which has sunk in Alba. We locate Memphis on an island part of Akhtuba, opposite to a continental part of city – Ancient Rome. Now near to place of the basis of the most ancient cities of planet there are villages Selitrennoe and Volnoe.



View from space on island Akhtuba, it is the Lower Egypt


Localization of Ancient Rome and Memphis on Akhtuba, old channel of Volga



For modern people it is difficult to apprehend the information that in the Volga region between Astrakhan (city Ostia) and Volgograd there were huge cities of an antiquity Memphis and Rome. Thus they do not know that more recently in the historical plan for same place there was capital of Golden Horde is Saray Batu. One walls the Saray Batu lasted in continental part of city on 15 km, and in an internal island part of Akhtuba – on 10 km. The general area of capital made 36 sq. km. So, this city is less than Moscow? Last years the Saray Batu occupied existence of 75 thousand inhabitants. Actually it was the second city of the world, after Constantinople on population. Ivan Terrible having grasped Astrakhan Khanate has disassembled walls of ancient city the Saray Batu and has constructed the Kremlin and temples of Astrakhan.

Earlier on place of the Saray Batu there was capital of Great Bulgaria, and then Khazar Khanate is the Itil. In the ancient city of Itil lived up to 600 thousand person, including tens thousands Varangians with families. What do you know about cities the Saray Batu or Itil in delta of Volga and Akhtuba? A question is rhetorical. What can speak about Rome – Ulak Urum…

Let's return to the main theme of the given work. Rome became the main city of nomadic and settled peoples of the Volga region, Ural, Caucasus, Siberia and the Central Asia. In city the elite was formed of the local tsars – nomads having at the order cavalry and set of soldiers. These tsars have received name Equitas – Horsemen. In due course the elite Romans has realized itself stronghold of civilization in an environment of tribes of barbarians. About 510 BC republican era and the period of active expansion of Rome on planet began. It was carried out by sea way from ports Ostia on the south through Caspian Sea and on the West through ports of Bosporan Empire. The overland way through Wild Steppe on the West was long and dangerous, therefore him used seldom.



Wind speed in Anapa, Kuban


Wind rose in Anapa, Kuban



Recently, due to hobby Wind Energy, me the unique natural phenomenon existing in Black Sea and on Bosporus was revealed. The essence of the phenomenon consists in existence during 90% of season of stable and steady northeast wind which can be named Russian wind. It constantly blows aside a passage and does not change the direction. Average speed exceeds 5.7 km/s or 20 km/hour. This wind is traced as corridor, width more than 100 km from Bosporus, extending in the size up to 200-300 km, down to territory of Kuban, in past Bosporan Empire (Kingdom). Surprisingly, but the first cities of Bosporan Empire have arisen in this wind corridor. However at coast of Russia the wind has feature – in the autumn, in the winter and in the early spring it blows strictly from northeast on a southwest to passage Bosporus, and in the spring, in the summer and in the early autumn – from the south on northeast. Thus, we deal with natural transport route, length about 800 km as the crow flies.

If you are in territory Bosporan Empire in Kuban after harvesting you have fine opportunity, having put sails by the ship to be floating strictly on a passage Bosporus, at all not operating it. It is exactly in two day you will get to Bosporus and in bay Gold Horn, that in Byzantium, late New Rome or Constantinople. Back it is convenient to move in the spring and in the summer on sculls along coast of Cappadocia, then on sails on the north, delivering on northeast of Black Sea the goods and the obtained money from sale of grain, honey, hemp, flax, furs and other goods of the north. The number of these goods included ore, gold, silver, copper, iron, wood and other natural resources. Back to Rome subjects of art, the weapon and ornaments were transported.

Let's notice that movement against steady northern wind inconveniently, therefore the version about vector of colonization of the Black Sea coast from the south on the north is ridiculous. To what was to apply so many efforts? Existence of unique environment in water area of Black Sea proves fidelity of our reconstruction about vector of colonization of the Mediterranean region and Europe as whole from the Volga region and Caucasus.



Wind speed in Istanbul, Bosphorus


Wind rose in Istanbul, Bosphorus



Within the framework of present clause it is necessary to specify etymology of word Bosporus (passage). It would seem that hundreds years everyone were pleased with the accepted explanation of an origin of word Bosporus. However we find his erroneous and hiding the truth about expansion of Volga region peoples on the West.

The Greek spelling of passage Βόσπορος (It is barefooted – has become over). The etymology of the name as βοὸς πόρος, where βοῦς the bull, large horned livestock plus πόρος passage, pass is popular. Thus, Bosporus ostensibly means The bull pass or The cow pass. But is what here the cow? In fact the cow on Greek is αγελάδα, and word the bull is ταύρος. The large horned livestock means is βοοειδή. To occurrence of the name use myth about Io, transformed into the cow. She has ostensibly crossed passage, therefore in its honor have named this.

The official treatment does not explain, whence in word Bosporus the combination of letters βὸς has undertaken, in fact words bull, cow and cattle in the Greek language do not contain the letter s (σ).

On our hypothesis based on existence of steady transport sea corridor from Bosporan Empire (Kuban) up to passage Bosporus, the name occurs on behalf of the god of northern wind Boreas – Βορέας. The width of wind corridor around of Bosporus makes 100 km. Not without reason Thrace was considered as place of dwelling of Boreas. It is known that in an antiquity Elbrus (Caucasus) named Bed of Boreas. Therefore in the name of a passage letters βὸς have appeared. So, Βόσπορος means literally Sea corridor of Boreas or the Ship route of northern wind.







We already wrote that Bosporan Empire was the friendly state Rome, and since III century BC it was part of the Roman possession [7] by means of inclusion Bosporan and Pontus in Seleucus Empire. It is no wonder that gold coins of Rome were minted only in Bosporan Empire [12, 7]. In the same place copper money were produced.

Bosporan Empire had extensive communications with the Mediterranean. It was the advanced post of the Roman state on sea open spaces. Through him huge commodity circulation between Rome and other civilized world was carried out. Figures of economic exchanges are known. Were hungry year in Athens when Bosporan Empire, and actually Rome and the Lower Egypt (island Akhtuba) in the Volga region, gave hungry Greeks on 77000 liters of grain cereals. It is almost 22 thousand tons of grain. Grateful Greeks marked these gifts in annals and directed back the whole Embassies with gratitude. By words of Strabo, annually from Bosporan Empire on export it was delivered 180000 copper medin (7200 tons) and 200 talents (5240 kg) of silver.

We believe that the first wave of expansion of peoples of Volga region Rome and Northern Caucasus was migration of Etruscan in days of the basis of Eternal city. On one of hypotheses which we entirely support, Etruscan has left northern near-Caspian steppes and by sea way was forwarded on Apennines. We can compare well-kept gravestones of Etruscan imperial families and inhabitants Bosporan Empire – they are identical. Thus, development of Apennines by Volga region and Caucasian peoples began in VIII – VII centuries BC. The vector of expansion has been directed from Volga region on southwest through water area of Black Sea and Bosporus. With the first wave of immigrants there was formation of the "Greek" megacities along coast of Mediterranean sea down to possession of Cartago. Conflicts of immigrants with Phoenician and Carthaginian, became in series of Punic wars in due course have begun. We think that the name Punic wars have taken place from war for Pontus (it is Punt) in southern part of Black Sea, and also for influence in the cities – colonies of Mediterranean Sea controllable Punic – Phoenician and Carthaginian.



Burial place of tsars of Etruscan on Apennines



Burial place of tsars of Etruscan on Kuban



The official history asserts that Rome first of all has directed the expansion to Iberian Peninsula named in the past Iberia (Iberia). However east and southern part of Caucasus also referred to Iberia, and earlier Pyrenees. Recently we have learned that languages of Basques and the Georgian in many respects coincide, yes so that they can understand quite tolerably each other. It speaks about migration of people of Basques from Caucasus on the West in the remote past, therefore the name Iberia has moved to Pyrenees. Hence, capture of Iberia by Romans from the Volga region has been connected to gains of tsar Seleucus and his colleagues in IV-III centuries BC [11].

Victories of Seleucus and other breeding leaders of Rome have led to involving in an orbit of republican Roman possession of huge territories in the Near East and in the Central Asia, including part of India. The Roman coins were in use down to Sri Lanka. Expansion of Rome from Volga region went on the south and the east through Ostia and overland way on the Caspian coast of Caucasus, and also the western way through ports Bosporan Empire and Pontus in water area of Mediterranean Sea. Therefore Hellenistic the Near East and the Central Asia it is connected to victories of ancient Romans, instead of Greeks.

Let's repeat the basic stages of expansion of Rome in the Volga region from our clause [11]. Ancient Rome, it or Bulgarian city Ulak Urum – to middle of IV century BC has economically got stronger the Egyptian Memphis and began to mint the first copper coins about 350 BC. Business and cultural communications of Rome with the cities – colonies across all Mediterranean at this time have become stronger. Since are Black Sea, Marble Sea and Aegean Sea, and finishing the seas washing to Apennines. The first language of the international dialogue of Rome and his satellites became the Greek language.



Seleucus Empire and other tribes leaders of Rome



According to an initial state language of Rome the Greek language, therefore early Roman coins Greek inscriptions were had. Silver and gold coins in the Balkan and Asian possession have simultaneously appeared. We shall attribute these coins to the first bank notes of Rome as they were minted by breeding leaders, since 330th BC. This money has been extended in huge territory from the Balkans up to India, including the north of Africa. On coins local tsars – leaders of the breeding union of Rome were represented. Inscriptions on coins were in the Greek language. We shall notice that the most part of new tsars had the Roman origin and names.

Let's specify details of history of Rome. The period of Wars of Diadochi come on the Second Samnite War (327 – 304 BC). Wars of successors of Diadochi have proceeded in 290th BC that corresponds to events of the Third Samnite War 298 – 290 BC We shall note, that in history of Rome there is date 312 BC when began construction of the Appian Way, which have connected Rome with Greece, Asia Minor and Africa [13]. Actually the Appian Way should pass from Volga – Akhtuba on the south to Iran or on southwest to Bosporus Empire.

By 306 BC Roman fleet, trade and newly appeared empires have become stronger in all east Mediterranean on which Carthage dominated. This year Rome has concluded the contract with Carthage that the western part of Mediterranean Sea remains under the control of Carthage, including Sicily.



Seleucus is the prototype of Alexander the Great



Gold coin with Bucephalus, horse of Seleucus



After capture by the Roman tsars of the East, expansion of Rome from the Volga region proceeded strictly on the West. In 265 BC tribal leaders of Rome have grasped Apennines, having undermined domination of Carthage. The first Punic War in 264 – 241BC therefore began. In 229 – 228 BC Romans have begun the first war with Illyrians with the purpose of capture of northern part of the Balkans. In 227 BC was formed new Roman province – Sicily and Corsica. In 218 – 201 BC the Second Punic War with Carthage has passed. In 168 BC the board of Antigonid going from Tsar Antigonus is the participant of the union of tribal leaders has interrupted.

In 149 – 146 BC was the Third Punic War ended with defeat and destruction of Carthage. In parallel these events Greece has got under full influence of Rome, having turned in province of republic. In 113 – 101 BC were frontier wars with the German tribes in the north of the Balkans and Italy. 73 – 71 BC were marked by revolt Spartacus. We identify the leader of "slaves" Spartacus to quite influential member of imperial sort of Spartocus (Bosporus Empire), going from the first tsar Spartocids [14]. Hence, revolt of Spartacus could be located in territory of Pontus and the Black Sea coast of Northern Caucasus (Iberia).

In 63 – 64 BC was final destruction of empire Seleucid and transition of the country under the control of Rome. After some ten years, Romans have reached the Upper Egypt. In 30th BC they have selected authority at Roman Ptolemaic dynasty, having the Roman origin. Absorption by Rome of the grounds of descendants of breeding leaders of Rome in Asia, India, Africa and the Balkans passed easily as these territories from the basis were actual colonies of Ancient Rome. Thus Latin language began to supersede the Greek language as new imperial means of dialogue.

Let's notice that in public consciousness the stereotype according to which Spain, Romans have grasped France, Britain and the Balkans first of all have become stronger. Actually the Roman expansion to the Western Europe began only in I century BC and was success only in I century. However, even in III century the Roman military expeditions to Britain proceeded. For example, Emperor Constantius Chlorus has headed retaliatory expedition on British Isles where has died in 306. Hence, Rome in the beginning has grasped Greece and Macedonia, then the Near East, Seleucid Empire and Egypt in Africa but only has then engaged in development of the Balkans, Central and Western Europe.



7 stages of expansion of Ancient Rome from the Volga region in V - I centuries B.C.



It is interesting to note historic fact according to which legions of Rome on 90 % have consisted of germen. Germans or Teutons conduct the origin from the Volga region. We believe that ancestors of Germans and are present Latinas. Very few people knows that down to XVIII century state language of Germans is Latin language was.

Up to the first quarter of IV century expansion of Rome has been caused by greatness and riches of Eternal city. But in 324 Rome has fallen under impacts of chariots of Pharaoh Thutmose III, grasping before it all Near East and Persia. At this time the basic military forces of empire were in the West and physically could not return to the Volga region for defense of Eternal city. For this reason Constantine Great has based New Rome on Bosporus on May 11, 330, having reconstructed ancient Byzantium in 324-330 and having declared city new capital of Roman Empire. The official history modestly is silent – what for Constantine Great has to move capital on the East and leave Rome on Apennines? Actually Rome was in the Volga region and has fallen prey to lineal descendants of Roman Emperors Gordianus from Egypt which did not recognize Christianity and Vedic, but encouraged belief in Ancient Egypt gods. Therefore the capital of Roman Empire has moved on the West – to Bosporus.

Not all Roman elite have accepted Constantine Great's reforms. Therefore in the Western Europe at the end of IV century the Western Roman Empire with capital Mediolan (Milan), and then Ravenna has been proclaimed. The official history asserts, that capital Rome also was, but actually it on Apennines did not exist yet.



The rests of the Triumphal Arch - 0 kilometer in New Rome, Istanbul (4m lower surface)



Obelisk of Tutmoses III and Column of copper snakes in Hippodrome in New Rome, Istanbul (4m lower surface)



In days of the basis of New Rome in Byzantium in 330, Ulak Urum on the Volga region was in decline. Sorrow has been caused by occupation of city and Akhtuba the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III. Rome has been seized by Egyptians in 324, page 105 [1]. Under oppression of occupation, Romans (inhabitants of the Volga region and Caucasus) have been compelled to run from city in 378. In the Bible this event is described as the First Exodus of Israelis under the direction of Leader of Moesia (Moses). Only the Moses not the Jew, but Khagan of Bulgarian-Romans (they named themselves Kubanites) from kin of Russ (ethnic Ugric) by name Arbat was. On January 19, 379 Arbat for the organization of successful ferry of refugees on vehicles (the Araba) on ice of Black Sea from Bosporan Empires to Crimea (Bible Sinai was) has received Roman military rank Dux Moesiea (Leader of Moesia). Hence, Moses it is not men name, bat the name of district. Arbat on achievement by refugees of Constantinople has been declared as Emperor of East Roman Empire. The Roman name of Ugrian Khagab is Theodosius Great Flavius. In his honor vehicles the Araba, Horn of Arabat and Theodosia in Crimea have been named.

In the European chronicles the First Exodus of 600 thousand refugees from the Volga region and Northern Caucasus under management of Arbat – Moses in 380th has received the name the First Huns Invasion. It was the largest resettlement of peoples from the moment of the beginning of expansion of Rome on the West. Only for Romans the Western Europe refugees from the East represented threat as were competitors in places of moving of these. Therefore in the western historiography for them the insulting, barbarous name – Huns has been thought up.

The second and final wave of resettlement of Romans-Israelis from the Volga region and Caucasus became the Second Huns Invasion under management of Khagan Attila in 440-450th. In the Bible it is described as the Second Exodus of Israelis under the direction of Joshua who is completely identified by us with Attila.

New immigrants – Romans from the east in middle of V century were perceived by inhabitants of the Western Roman Empire, as barbarians and enemies. Chronicles of Europe dazzle descriptions of awful pictures of cruelty and hatred Huns in relation to Europeans. Khagan of Huns Attila was named Scourge of Divine. In fights frequently it was resisted by Last Roman is Aetius Flavius, heading the European Roman armies and personified as honor and nobleness of civilization. However presently at availability of various information there was weight of mistakes in the description of Huns. In the European sources completely there are no images Huns and their leaders.




Aetius, it is Khagan Attila, it is Khagan of Ugrian Aetcel



Appearance of the soldier and the horseman of Huns from Ancient Rome



According to our reconstruction of [1], page 230, Attila, Aetius Flavius and emperor Theodosius II Flavius is one historical person. In fact one of names Attila was Finno-Ugric Aetcel [6], III volume, page 91, conterminous with the Roman name. Surprise of the author by [15] fact of is interesting that Roman Aetius within the youth ostensibly was the hostage at Huns [16], but further continued to keep with them friendly attitudes – at least, up to the end of 430th. It repeatedly typed from their environment the soldier which took special place in his armies. There is an opinion, that Aetius serving Huns represented something like his personal guards – Bucellarii [17]. Actually contradictions in this information are not present, in fact Huns it is east Romans from the Volga region. We shall notice, that on kept sculpture Aetius it is cut « In circle », as Attila and his confidants. Probably, image of Aetius the unique portrait of Attila which has reached up to now.

There was that most part of host of aggressors, including under management Attila, has consisted of germen. Historians explain it hired character of an army, say Huns served in cavalry and were the basic shock force of army. The set of the information on military connections Huns contains in work [15] which author tries to generalize the facts contradicting to settled stereotypes. Nikonorov V.P. tries to reconcile data on the servant and personal secretary Attila – Roman Orestes from Pannonia, and also Roman Eudicote, the head of bodyguard of Khagan, with the erroneous representations about barbarians – Huns and Attila.

For example, Marcellinus has given Huns features of wild northern peoples [18], and Nikonorov V.P. [15] asserts, that Huns involved in the numbers peoples of Southern Siberia, Central Asia and Kazakhstan, including the Iranian and Finno-Ugric origin. We shall note, that, according to our researches [1], the imperial elite Huns was Finno-Ugrian from the Volga region. Commander military connections at Attila were germen Ardaric [19], the leader of Gepids [20], and Valamirus, the leader of Ostrogoths [19, 20].



Images of legionaries from Traianus column



Shock force Huns were horse armies which have consisted mostly from Sarmatians-Alans [21]. Alans and Avars it is inhabitants of Northern Caucasus which descendants are Ossetians. In days of Attila Alans were inclined to Christianity which they have officially accepted in IX century. Tsars and princes of Huns, ethnic Ugrian supervised of cavalry corps.

The infantry of Huns has consisted from German’s soldier and archers. Under statements of the Roman historians, the infantry has been equipped and organized by an example of the Roman legions. If to reject hostility to Huns from the party of throw Europeans it is possible to tell simply, that the pedestrian connections Huns it and are the Roman legions which have come with last waves of migration Romans from the Volga region and Caucasus in 380th and 440-450th.

In Huns armies there was very well organized nonproduction service. Its structure included the special division serving at siege of enemy strengthening’s throwing machines which personnel was typed from Romans [22]. The engineering service has been equipped with mobile pontoons and special boats on which the flooring from the boards used for fast ferry of armies through bogs and the rivers was stacked. Boats communicated among themselves, on them boards on which the infantry and cavalry was easy forwarded on other coast were beaten. Mobile pontoons were applied to a ferry through water barrier of huge obsidional machines.

The Roman historiography is filled with data on use of military connections Huns Western and East Roman Emperors in various wars [23].



Imagination of the Roman legions



However in reality Huns could not possess plenty of cavalry as it has been proved, that in Europe of the past there were no necessary resources and pastures for such number of horses [24]. In fact each nomad was accompanied with some horses at once. Besides in the Roman sources are practically to be spoken nothing about horsemen Huns, but mostly about the pedestrian soldiers.

Let's note interesting nuance in details of arms Huns, speaking about a direct communication Huns with Northern Volga region. The bow of Huns stored in campaigns and daily life in special birch bark the cases, named goryt [25]. Quivers for bows also were made from birch bark. Staffs arrows were done from rush. Whence to undertake birch bark in steppes and deserts? Undoubtedly, birch bark cases did in the north of the Volga region where birch woods grew. The name goryt gives out Finno-Ugric origin of it. Each of horsemen Huns had at the order few bows and quivers for emergency. If to take into account, that Huns army totaled few ten thousands horsemen him some hundred thousand goryts and quivers, and also millions arrows were required.



Images of soldiers on bone from burial place of Huns


Images of goryts (cases) and quivers from birch bark from burial place of Huns



Thus, expansion of Rome from the Volga region on the West finished in middle of V century with death of Attila – Aetius in 454. At this time in the Volga region on Akhtuba the blossoming of the Lower Egypt connected to activity of Pharaoh Tutankhamen (442-450), and also with coming to power Pharaoh Haremhab (454-482) and Ramesses I (482-484) was observed. After death of Tutankhamen Egyptians have refused variant of the Egyptian Christianity and have returned to the ancient belief of the Ancient Egyptian gods. In connection with religious calls Rome or Ulak Urum in the Volga region has stopped existence, having conceded to celebration of Memphis, the Egyptian neighbor in territory of island Akhtuba.

According to an official historiography, last emperor of Ancient Rome was Flavius Romulus Augustus it is formal rule in 475-476. He has died in the Western Roman Empire in the city Naples in 507. Later, after decline of Ancient Rome and Memphis, on their place there was city Itil becoming subsequently capital of Khazar Khanate.

Grand Prince,
Professor and the doctor of historical sciences,
Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev
19.11.2016-19.12.2016.


The bibliography:

[1] Kubarev V.V., Vedas of Russ, M., 2009. The link: http://www.kubarev.ru/en/content/251.htm
[2] Gimbutas, M. (1964) Bronze Age Cultures in Central and Eastern Europe. Mouton.
[3] Gimbutas, M. (1977) The first wave of Eurasian steppe pastoralists into Copper Age Europe. J. of Indo-European Studies, vol. 5.
[4] Gimbutas, M. (1974) The God and Goddesses of Old Europe. 7000-3500 B. C. L.
[5] Gimbutas, M. (1980) The Kurgan wave № 2 (c. 3400-3200 B. C.) into Europe and
the following transformation of culture. J. of Indo-European Studies, vol. 8.
[6] Bahshi Iman, Djagfar Tarihy (Annals of Jagfar) Gazi-Baradj Tarihy (Annals of Gazi-Baradje), I - III volume. The link: http://www.kubarev.ru/en/content/346.htm
[7] Kubarev V.V., Attribution of Ancient Rome on Volga-Akhtuba on coins. Clause, Moscow, 2008. The link: http://www.kubarev.ru/en/content/204.htm
[8] Kubarev V.V., Capitoline wolf from the Volga region. Clause, Moscow, 2008. The link: http://www.kubarev.ru/en/content/200.htm
[9] Kubarev V.V., the History of Ancient Rome (1184 up to AD - 476 year). Clause, Moscow, 2009. The link: http://www.kubarev.ru/en/content/256.htm
[10] Kubarev V.V., Images of Romans ancient from Volga in artifacts. Clause, Moscow, 2010. The link: http://www.kubarev.ru/en/content/273.htm
[11] Kubarev V.V., Seleucus and breeding leaders of Rome. The report at XXXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization, December 26, 2015, RosNoU, Moscow, the link: http://www.kubarev.ru/en/content/421.htm
[12] Harold Mettingli, Coins of Rome. Since the most ancient times before falling the western Empire, Czech, Discovery Press s.r.o., 2005. (H. Mattingly, Roman Coins from the earliest times to the fall of the West Empire, Methuen and Co. Ltd, 36 Essex Street W.C. London, 1927).
[13] Titus Livius. Ab Urbe Condita, Liber IX.
[14] Gaydukevich V.F. Bosporan Empire. M., 1949 (lit).
[15] Nikonorov V.P., Military science European Huns in view of the data of Greek-Latin written tradition. A note of East branch of the Russian archeological society. A new series. Volume I (XXVI). SPb., 2002. Page 224-296.
[16] Greg. Tur. HF II, 8.
[17] Liebeschuetz 1993 : 270-272.
[18] Marcell. - Marcellini v.c. Comitis Chronicon ad a. DXLVIII / Ed. Th. Mommsen // MGH (AA.) T. XI. 1894. P. 37-108; The Chronicle of Marcellinus / A Translation and Commentary (with a reproduction of Mommsen's edition of the text) by V. Croke. Sydney, 1995.
[19] PLREII: 138, PLREII: 1135-1136.
[20] Budanov 2000: Budanov V.P. Barbarous the world of an epoch of Great resettlement of peoples. M.: 194-195, s.v.; 309, s.v.
[21] Amm. Marc. XXXI, 3, 1; 3; 8, 4; 16, 3; Ps.-Aur. Vict. XLVII, 3; Auson. VIII, 1,31; compare: Auson. XXVI, 26, 8-9; Pacat. 11, 4.
[22] Prisc. fr. lb D = 6, 2 CENTURY.
[23] Elton 1997 : 89-97.
[24] Lindner 1981; 1982 : 701-706. Lindner 1981: Lindner R.P. Nomadism, Horses and Huns // PPr. No. 92. P. 3-19. Many scientists mark correctness of conclusions Linder (Heather 1999 : 261; Ferrill 1991 : 142-144; Sinor 1993 : 8, 10; Bachrach 1985 : 725; 1994 : 65-66; Elton 1997 : 27-29; Nicolle 2000 : 21-22).
[25] Nikonorov, Khudyakov 1999. Nikonorov V.P., Khudyakov J.S. Image of soldiers from Orlat’s burial ground // Eurasia: cultural heritage of ancient civilizations. Ed. 2: Horizons of Eurasia / Editor O.A. Mitko. Novosibirsk. Page 141-154.


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